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【人文】舌尖上的印度:漂洋过海中国菜,落地生根独成帜(中英双语)

2022-01-12 14:54:17

我们熟悉的中餐漂洋过海来到印度,是如何“入乡随俗”的呢?

前言|谁是印杜君?


大家好,我是印杜君。^_^ 

在连载了若干期盘古智库印度中心动态及观点后,终于轮到我们隆重推出接下来的度人文解读栏目。在这里,印杜君会为大家定期撰写或选取视角有趣而又与众不同的文章,解读印度人文现象。细心的读者也许已经发现,印杜君是洞朗对峙后国内首次访印调研智库的盘古智库代表团成员之一,再次从印度归来后深感中印两国民众对彼此理解偏差之顽固。很多中印学者提出增加两国民间交流是建设健康稳定中印关系的基础,那么就让我们离开研讨桌从我做起吧,让我们一起重新认识印度文化,重新解读印度这个不可思议的国家,Fighting(握拳)!

PS.公号在文章末终于有了留言功能,希望各位小伙伴多多留言与印杜君互动哦(^-^)/



导语

“民以食为天”,中国与印度都有着庞大而复杂的菜系,其美味令世界倾倒,当近代中国移民将中餐带到印度,两者碰撞出了独一无二的火花,融合出了独树一帜的印式中餐(Indian Chinese Food),直至今日,它依然深深影响着印度乃至世界各地的饮食习惯。去过印度的小伙伴一定有所体会,虽然在街头巷尾总能看到“中餐”的影子,但此“中餐”非彼中餐,导致我们面对“中餐”菜单经常一脸问号(⊙_⊙)???今天,印杜君隆重推出“舌尖上的印度”系列之二,为大家揭开印式中餐背后的秘密٩(๑>◡<๑)۶


另外,本文可解答:


“近代时期中印文化是如何开始融合在一起的?”

“中餐在印度经历了怎样的本地化过程?”

“为何中餐在印度大受欢迎?”

“满洲鸡如何成为印式中餐的代名词?”

“印式中餐是怎样影响全世界的?”

“经典的印式中餐有哪些?”


等问题,敬请期待! ^_^


  • 注:以下为正文。

加尔各答街头,卖饺子的华裔印度人


While the Chinese have been visiting India for millennia in search of Buddhist teachings, Yang Tai Chow was the first recorded Chinese to migrate to India for better material prospects. In 1778, he put down roots in Kolkata. Known at the time as Calcutta, it was the then-capital of British India and the most easily accessible metropolitan area from China by land.


尽管千年以来,中国人不断为求佛法前往印度,但杨大钊是有记载的第一个为了追求更好的物质生活而移民到印度的中国人。1778年,他开始扎根于加尔各答,彼时英属印度的首都,也是从中国由陆路前往印度最易到达的大城市。


杨大钊之墓位于加尔各答西南30公里处的Achipur,每年有华侨华人来此祭拜缅怀(摄影:Deepanjan Ghosh


Over the years, many like him came, mostly Hakkas, and by the early part of the 20th century, a Chinatown had developed in Kolkata and it thrived and buzzed with enterprise. Chinese served with distinction as dentists, tannery owners, sauce manufacturers, beauticians and shoe shop owners, but it was as restaurateurs that the Chinese found their fame and glory in India.


很多年后,很多像他一样的人也来到印度,其中大多是客家人,于是在20世纪早期,唐人街在加尔各答发展起来,随后,中国人的企业也兴盛起来。中国人在印度成为牙医、制革厂主、酱料制造商、美容师和鞋店老板,但最终在餐饮业获得名声和荣耀。


As all immigrant communities tend to do, the Chinese assimilated Indian sensibilities and beliefs. They even acknowledged one of our goddesses, Kali, as their own, and offered noodles, chop suey, rice and vegetable dishes in rituals as a sign of unity.


就像所有的移民一样,这些中国人渐渐认同了印度的情感和信仰。他们甚至承认印度的迦利女神,把她作为自己的女神,在祭祀仪式上供奉面条、炒杂烩、米饭和蔬菜,以示团结。


位于华侨居住区的迦利女神像


And so it was with food that the Sino-Indian cultural fusion began.


因此,中印文化的融合始于饮食。


About 85 years ago, the Indian culinary world was affected by a new cuisine. The first Indo-Chinese restaurant Eau Chew opened in Kolkata. Presumably hordes came out satiated and impressed, beaming their approval to the next lot of people who hadn't tried this new fangled cuisine of foreign origin, yet spicy and tasty like their own.


大约在85年前,印度的烹饪界受到了一种新的烹饪方式的影响。第一家印度中餐馆“欧洲”在加尔各答开业。据说,成群结队的人们在餐馆里吃饱喝足、大快朵颐之后,会向那些还没有尝试过这种新奇的异国风味菜肴的人强烈推荐。这种菜肴虽然来自他国,但口味却辛辣又可口。


现在的欧洲饭店依然供奉着祖先的照片


New restaurants mushroomed all over Kolkata, and legends like Fat Mama and Kim Fa were born, offering newer dishes with fancier combinations and names like August Moon Rolls and. Before you knew it "Indian Chinese" had tickled the taste buds of folk in every small town and city across India. No small feat for a foreign cuisine.


于是,新餐馆开遍了加尔各答,像“胖妈妈”和“金发”这样的传奇故事随之诞生。它们提供了更新颖的菜肴,比如“八月月亮卷”和“火龙鸡”。不知不觉地,在印度的每个小镇和城市里,印式中餐已经触动了人们的味蕾。对于外国菜来说,这是一个不小的壮举。


印度街头卖中餐的小推车


Indian Chinese food wasn't just served by restaurants big and small, but also by handcart owners, highway food stalls and mobile Chow Mein vans boasting imaginative names like Hungry Eyes and Dancing Stomach. Classic Mumbai street food now even has Chinese versions with "Chinese bhel" and "Sichuan dosa".


你不仅可以在大大小小的中餐厅品尝到印式中餐,还可以从手推车、高速公路的小吃摊和流动的炒面车上尝到各种富有想象力的小吃,比如“饥饿的眼睛”和“舞动的胃”。经典的孟买街头小吃中现在甚至有中国版的“中式炒米香”和“四川卷薄饼”。


印度街头的创新式中餐


印式中餐为何风靡印度?


What is it that makes Chinese food so spectacularly popular? The answer lies with Indian food.


是什么让中国菜如此受欢迎?答案就在印度菜之中。


Quick to figure out that Indians love spicy, oily preparations, the Chinese merely masala-fied and greased their cuisine into a glutinous, winning combination.


很容易就能发现,印度人喜欢辛辣、油腻的食物,中国人仅仅是用香料的成功组合把他们的菜肴烹饪成一种糊状的食物。


Paneer (Indian cottage cheese) turned into Sichuan paneer with Chinese spices. Chicken curry was substituted with chili chicken. Aloo bhindi? Kung Pao potatoes with okra in a sweet and spicy tomato based dry sauce cured the craving and the curiosity. Pepper chicken reminded people of south Indian style fried chicken.


奶豆腐(印度白干酪)加上中国四川辣酱就变成了“四川奶豆腐”。咖喱鸡被辣鸡代替。Aloo bhindi是什么?就是用一种甜辣的番茄干酱制成的宫保土豆和秋葵,完全满足了人们的渴望和好奇心。胡椒鸡让人们想起南印度风味的炸鸡。


未经加工的印度奶豆腐(paneer)


Non-vegetarian pakoras (batter fried dumplings) chicken or lamb or prawn Manchurian, dry or gravy. And since there's usually at least one vegetarian in an Indian family, Manchurian sauce was poured over gobi (cauliflower). To some, Gobi Manchurian is the outerlimit of Indian-Chinese food friendship.


非素的炸饺子用鸡肉、羊肉或大虾制成,有干的或肉汁的。而且,由于印度家庭中至少有一个素食者,满洲酱也可以用于制作素菜,浇在花菜上。对一些人来说,满洲花菜是中印两国食物友谊的外部界限。


But wait a minute. Manchurian? Is that even a dish?


等等!满洲?这难道也能是一道菜吗?


Not in China, no. But in India, it's practically synonymous with Chinesefood. It is the result of a request by a customer from Cricket Club of India, to create something different from the menu, and Nelson Wang, then caterer of Chinese food at the Cricket Club of India took cubes of chicken, coated them incorn flour and deep fried them. Wang then prepared a red sauce with onions, green chillies and garlic, and slapped some vinegar and soy into it.


在中国它并不是,但是在印度,满洲几乎已经成为中国菜的代名词。这道菜是由曾经为印度板球俱乐部供应中餐的黄玉堂创制的,一位板球俱乐部的客人要求开发菜单之外的新菜品,于是黄玉堂就将裹了玉米粉的鸡块用油炸透,并用洋葱、青辣椒和大蒜制成红色酱料,再随意加入一些醋和酱油。


印式中餐的代名词——满洲鸡


He popped the fried chicken dumplings back into the sauce and gave it aquick stir so that the flavors came together and served it with steamed orfried rice. The customers loved it. As Nelson says, "word of mouth" spread the acclaim of this dish and today it is found in almost every menu that serves Chinese food in the country.


他将炸好的鸡块放入酱料中然后快速搅拌,使得味道更好的融合。这道菜搭配蒸米饭或者炒米饭食用,深受客人喜爱。据黄玉堂所说,“良好的口碑”使得这道菜美名远扬,直到今天,我们依然能够在印度几乎每一家中餐馆的菜单上看到这道菜。


This word-of-mouth publicity inspired Nelson Wang to start his own restaurant China Garden, which is a veritable Mumbai institution, even today.


于是,美名远扬的黄玉堂创立了中国花园餐厅,至今依然在孟买享有盛名,是一家名副其实的热门餐厅。


1994年,黄玉堂在中国花园餐厅招待印度客人


加尔各答之外的版图扩张


Nowadays his son Eddie, a third generation Chinese Indian, spearheads the restaurant's expansion to Delhi, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Pune and Goa. Not bad for a man who began his career eking out a modest living doing odd jobs, including limbo dancing at clubs in Kolkata, which, by the way, he was also very good at.


如今,黄玉堂的儿子埃迪,一位第三代印度华侨,还将他们的餐厅开到了德里、海德拉巴、班加罗尔、浦那和果阿等地。黄玉堂曾经靠做零工勉强维持生计,其中在加尔各答的俱乐部跳过的林波舞还是他十分擅长的一项,对于以这种方式艰难创业的他来说,如今已是成绩斐然了。


The feel-at-home comfort of Indian Chinese food is accentuated by the garnishes. Most dishes are covered with fresh coriander leaves, and depending on the dish, sliced onion rings too.


印式中餐里用作装饰的配菜使其更加接印度的“地气”,大部分菜肴上撒有新鲜的香菜叶,有时根据菜肴种类的不同也会配以洋葱圈。


But it's the ingredients that distinguish Indian Chinese food from real Chinese food.


然而,真正使印式中餐区别于真正中餐的,是其使用的食材。


While the cooking methods remain the same, what goes in is quite different. Besides the use of locally available vegetables and meats, it's the use of condiments like garam masalas (a selection of hand pounded or whole spices used to cook Indian meat dishes), corn flour for thickening and coating, monosodium glutamate to enhance the "Chinese" flavor, an overdose of chilli, garlic and ginger, and generous portions of soy sauce to top it all off --- which is what gives Indian Chinese food that special robust, spicy flavor.


在烹饪方法相同的前提下,印式中餐与真正中餐所使用的食材相当不同。除了使用在当地更易获取的蔬菜和肉类之外,印式中餐还善于运用“热”马萨拉(在印度菜中用于烹饪肉类食品的混合香料,手磨成粉末或者整块放入),勾芡和挂糊用的玉米粉,强调“中式”风味的味精,大量的辣椒、大蒜、姜和大比例的酱油等调味品,也正是这些造就了印式中餐的独特风味——强烈而又辛辣。


Garam Masala


Who needs the bland original Chinese food when you've got a pungent chili garlic prawn in front of you? Or hakka noodles? Noodles tossed withgarlic, lots of chillies, cabbage, capsicum, carrots, ajinomoto, soya, Worcestershire sauce, vinegar and garnished with spring onions. Or a chicken lollipop? Chicken wings artfully stuffed with more meat, dipped in a red batter and deep fried. Or crispy fried shredded lamb with red chillies camouflaged so well that there's danger in every bite.


当面前摆着一盘辣味浓郁的蒜香虾,谁还想吃清淡的原始中餐呢?或者是与大蒜、辣椒、卷心菜、甜椒、胡萝卜等食材一起翻炒,加入味之素味精、酱油、伍斯特辣酱汁和醋等调料并用小葱点缀之上的客家面条?再或者被处理成棒棒糖形状、用红色面糊腌制最后在油锅炸透的鸡腿棒棒糖?还是每一口都可能引爆味蕾的脆炸羊肉片炒红辣椒?


被制成棒棒糖形状的Chicken Lollipop


Firmly established in the Indian culinary milieu now, these dishesdefine the Indian Chinese food experience. Today, restaurant menus also offer a selection of dishes from different regions of China -- steamed and delicate like the original, but there's always the Indian Chinese touch sitting on the same page.


这些菜肴如今已牢牢植根于印度菜系之中,定义着品尝者每一次印式中餐的美食体验。时至今日,我们能在印度餐厅的菜单上看到各种原汁原味的中国地方菜——有些精致的摆放在蒸笼里,但其中也总是少不了印式中餐的影子。


As the second and third generation of Chinese Indians grew up they migrated to other parts of the world. And they did what they knew best --- Cook Indian Chinese food. Even in Europe and America these days, if you want that extra punch from your home delivery boxes, the recipe probably originated in Mumbai or Kolkata.


当第二或第三代印度华侨长大成人,他们也移民至世界各地,依然从事着最擅长的工作:烹饪印式中餐。如今,即使在欧洲或者美国,如果你想要在外卖食品中寻找新鲜的味觉冲击,它们多半也是来自孟买或加尔各答的印式中餐。


Blame it on Yang Tai Chow. Or thank him. Depending on how much you like your mouth breathing chili garlic fire.


你可以尽管责备杨大钊,也可以好好感谢他,不过这就要取决于你是否喜欢辣到满嘴喷火的感觉了。



只有在印度才能吃到的十道经典印式中餐

1. Chilli Chicken·辣子鸡

Chilli Chicken: With a soya sauce marinade adding the Chinese element, this signature dish is the best party starter there is. It is made with chicken coated in a paste of hot chili,garlic, ginger and spices, then sautéed with onions and green chilies. There's alsoa "dry" version that's deep-fried. Plenty of other proteins also getthe chili treatment like paneer and seafood, and how could we forget honey chilli potatoes? Yummm!


辣子鸡:这道招牌菜以酱油汁腌制,增添了其中国风味,可以说是朋友聚会上最棒的开胃菜了。这道菜的做法是,将鸡块裹上辣椒、大蒜、姜和香料等制成的酱料,并与洋葱、青椒一起嫩炒,它还有另外一个“爆炒”版本。许多其他种类的蛋白质食物也可以用这样的方式辣炒,比如奶豆腐和海鲜。当然,还有非常好吃的蜂蜜辣炒土豆!


2. Manchurian·满洲菜

Manchurian: The creation of Chicken Manchurian is in fact credited to Nelson Wang of China Garden who introduced Manchurian to Mumbai in 1975. He started playing around with quintessential Indian ingredients like garlic, ginger, chilli and just added a splash of soya sauce instead of garam masala - and voila. Now there are many variations madewith paneer, gobi, mutton and fish.


满洲菜:满洲鸡的创制实际上要归功于中国花园餐厅的黄玉堂厨师,他在1975年向孟买引入了满洲菜。最初,他巧妙运用大蒜、姜、辣椒等典型的印度食材,仅仅是将最后加入的“热”马萨拉替换为酱油,瞧,满洲鸡就这样诞生了!现在这道菜也衍生出奶豆腐、菜花、羊肉和鱼肉的不同版本。


3. Chowmein·炒面

Chowmein: In China, chowmein is referred to as chāu-mèing and is basically a portion of boiled noodles topped with greens, scrambled eggs and soya sauce. But in India, it’s pan fried, really spicy and a favourite in every household.


炒面:在中国,“chowmein”指的是炒面,也就是一份配以青菜、炒蛋和酱油的面条;但是在印度,炒面是用平底锅炒制的,十分强调辣味,在家家户户的餐桌上都大受欢迎。


4. Manchow Soup·满洲汤

Manchow Soup: In the Indian version, Manchow Soup is a soy-based spicy soup flavoured with garlic and ginger, cooked with vegetables or meat, spruced up with scallions, carrots, celery and garnished with fried noodles.


满洲汤:印式的满洲汤是一道以酱油为基调的辣味汤,它使用蒜和姜调味,与蔬菜和肉类一起烹饪,用青葱、胡萝卜和芹菜装饰,并点缀以炒面。


5. Spring Rolls·春卷

Spring Rolls: The Chinese call it Chūn Juǎn and are actually Cantonese-style dumplings made for welcoming spring. But here in India, they are fried golden, loaded with vegetables juliennes and served often as party snacks.


春卷:中国人称之为“春卷”的这道广式点心一般在迎接春天到来之时制作,但是在印度,春卷是一种用蔬菜丝作馅、面皮炸至金黄的零食,通常在聚会上供应。


6. Szechwan·四川酱

Szechwan: Flavour-packed, fiery red and ridiculously spicy. Indians have a love affair with Szechwan sauce and add it to just about anything, from fried rice to noodles, gravies to bhel puris. This magical sauce is made with dried red chillies, shallots and lots of garlic.

 

四川酱:重口味的、火焰一般辣得离谱的四川酱得到了印度人的青睐。印度人把四川酱添加到一切食材中,从炒饭到面条,从调味肉汁到炒香米。这种神奇的酱是由干红辣椒、葱和很多很多大蒜制成的。


7. Darsaan·甜炸面条

Darsaan: Flattened egg noodles cut into strips, deep fried, coated with honey, sprinkled with sesame seeds and served with ice cream. Yes, this Chinese dessert isn’t all that Chinese after all.

 

甜炸面条:将鸡蛋面切成扁平的条状,入锅油炸,涂上蜂蜜,撒上芝麻,配上冰淇淋。是的,这道中国甜点不全然是中国的,反而带着强烈的印度特色。


8. American Chop Suey·美式炒杂烩

American Chop Suey: An all time favourite, these noodles are a really popular side dish, tossed with greens like cabbage and capsicum, chicken or shrimp and sweetish chilli garlic sauce.Top it off with some crispy noodles and you’re good to go!

 

美式炒杂烩:这是一道一直以来都非常受欢迎的配菜,用甜椒蒜酱将卷心菜、辣椒、鸡肉和虾等等拌在一起,然后把拌菜和一些酥脆的面条一起吃,那简直妙不可言!你值得一试!

 

9. Date Pancakes·红枣薄饼

Date Pancakes: Only in India does a Chinese meal end with fried layers of dough stuffed with dates and topped with a scoop of vanilla ice cream.

 

红枣薄饼:只有在印度,中国的烤薄饼才会有一层油炸后的酥脆的表面,里面塞满了枣子,上面还放着一勺香草冰淇淋。


10. Fried Rice·炒饭

Fried Rice: Fry everything and it’s a winner of a dish in the Indian subcontinent. Originally steamed in China, our version is greasy and spiced with red chilli powder, garam masala and green chillies.

 

炒饭:几乎可以炒所有的食材,它完全称得上是印度次大陆上菜的赢家。在中国,米饭主要是蒸着吃的。但是印式炒饭稍显油腻,并且加入了红辣椒粉,马沙拉和绿辣椒。


英文原文来自CNN和NDTV,有删改。

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